Scholarly Resources on Culture and Learning


The conceptual framework supporting the My Cultural Awareness Profile (myCAP©) Suite of Resources was developed from the work of many scholars stemming from distinct disciplinary fields, including intercultural communications as well as multicultural and global teacher education.

The following published scholarship has contributed significantly to the conceptual framework for myCAP©:

Arhar, Joanne, Betty Soppelsa, and Letitia M. Williams. 2015. InTASC as a Framework: Viewing the InTASC Standards through a Global Preparation Lens. Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

Banks, James A. 2006. Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bennett, Janet. M. 2009. “Transformative training: Designing programs for culture learning.” In Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence: Exploring the Cross-Cultural Dynamics within Organizations, ed. Michael Moodian. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bennett, Milton J. 1993. “Toward ethnorelativism: A Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity.” In Education for the Intercultural Experience, ed. R. Michael Paige. Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press.

Bennett, Milton J. 2004. “Becoming Interculturally Competent.” In Toward Multiculturalism: A Reader in Multicultural Education, ed. Jaime Wurzel. Newton, MA: Intercultural Resource Corporation.

Cochran-Smith, Marilyn. 1995. “Color Blindness and Basket Making Are Not the Answers: Confronting the Dilemmas of Race, Culture, and Language Diversity in Teacher Education.” American Educational Research Journal 32, 3:493–522.

Cushner, Kenneth, and Jennifer Mahon. 2009. “Developing the Intercultural Competence of Educators and Their Students: Creating the Blueprints.” In Handbook of Intercultural Development, ed. Darla Deardorff. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cushner, Kenneth, and Shu-Ching Chang. 2015. “Developing Intercultural Competence through Overseas Student Teaching: Checking our Assumptions.” Intercultural Education 26:3, 165-178

Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2006. “Constructing 21st-Century Teacher Education.” Journal of Teacher Education 57, 3:300–314.

Gay, Geneva. 2000. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Gay, Geneva, and Kipchoge Kirkland. 2003. “Developing Cultural Critical Consciousness and Self-Reflection in Preservice Teacher Education.” Theory into Practice 42, 3:181–187.

Hall, Edward T. 1998. “The Power of Hidden Differences.” In Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication: Selected Readings, ed. Milton J. Bennett. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Hammer, Mitchell R. 2015. “The Developmental Paradigm for Intercultural Competence Research.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations: 3–4.

Hanvey, Robert G. 1982. “An Attainable Global Perspective.” Theory into Practice 21, 3:162.

Howard, Tyrone C. 2003. “Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Ingredients for Critical Teacher Reflection.” Theory into Practice 42, 3:195–202.

Irvine, Jacqueline J. 2003. Educating Teachers for Diversity: Seeing With a Cultural Eye. New York: Teachers College Press.

Kim, Young Yun. 2001. Becoming Intercultural: An Integrative Theory of Communication and Cross-Cultural Adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

King, Patricia M., and Marcia B. Baxter Magolda. 2005. “A Developmental Model of Intercultural Maturity.” Journal of College Student Development 46, 6:571–592.

King, Patricia M. 2000. “Learning to Make Reflective Judgments.” Teaching to Promote Intellectual and Personal Maturing: Incorporating Students' Worldviews and Identities into the Learning Process: New Directions for Teaching and Learning, ed. Marcia B. Baxter Magolda. New York: Jossey-Bass.

Ladson-Billings, Gloria. 1995. “Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.” American Educational Research Journal 32, 3:465–491.

Mahon, Jennifer A. 2006. “Under the Invisibility Cloak? Teacher Understanding of Cultural Difference.” Intercultural Education 17, 4:391–407.

Manise, Jennifer, and Betty Soppelsa. 2015. The Top 10 Characteristics of Globally Competent Teachers.

Marx, Helen, and David Moss. 2011. “Please Mind the Culture Gap: Intercultural Development during a Teacher Education Study Abroad Program.” Journal of Teacher Education 62, 1:35–47.

McAllister, Gretchen, and Jacqueline J. Irvine. 2000. “Cross Cultural Competency and Multicultural Teacher Education.” Review of Educational Research 70, 1:3–24.

Merryfield, Merry. M. 2000. “Why Aren't Teachers Being Prepared to Teach for Diversity, Equity, and Global Interconnectedness? A Study of Lived Experiences in the Making of Multicultural and Global Educators.” Teaching and Teacher Education 16, 4:429–443.

Peckenpaugh, Kacy. 2014. “Unpacking the Study Abroad Experience: An Intercultural Process.” Proceedings of the Intercultural Competence Conference, November, 2014, 3:116-142.

Perry, William. G. 1968. Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Rasmussen, Louise J., and Winston R. Sieck. 2015. “Culture-general Competence: Evidence from a Cognitive Field Study of Professionals Who Work in Many Cultures.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1–16.

Sankay Rice, Laura L., Daniel D. Foster, Melanie Miller-Foster, and R. Kirby Barrick. 2014. “Discovering Global Competencies of Agriculture Education Students through Reflective Journaling.” NACTA: North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture 58, 4:324–330.

Rogoff, Barbara. 2003. The Cultural Nature of Human Development. New York, NY: Oxford University.

Stachowski, Laura L., and Edward J. Brantmeier. 2002. “Understanding Self through Other: Changes in Student Teacher Perceptions of Home Culture from Immersion in Navajoland and Overseas.” International Education 32:5-18.

Taylor, Edward W. 1994. “Intercultural Competency: A Transformative Learning Process.” Adult Education Quarterly 44, 3:154–174.

Trumbull, Elise, and Maria Pacheco. 2005. Leading with Diversity: Cultural Competencies for Teacher Preparation and Professional Development. Providence, RI: Brown University and Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.

Vande Berg, Michael, R. Michael Paige, and K. Hemming Lou. 2012. Student Learning Abroad: What Our Students are Learning, What They’re Not, and What We Can Do about It. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Walton, J., Naomi Priest, and Yin Paradies. 2013. “Identifying and Developing Effective Approaches to Foster Intercultural Understanding in Schools.” Intercultural Education, 24, 3:181-194