Although it is important to be familiar with all sources of authority, it is also important to be aware of a “hierarchy of authority.” Briefly described, no law or government action can violate the Constitution. Statutes, Federal Case Law, and Presidential acts having the effect of law all share a similar weight in the hierarchy of authority, and they interact in the context of the “checks and balances” created by the Constitutional “separation of powers.” Regulations and precedent decisions of agency appellate bodies have the force of law, since the Agencies that issue them have been delegated lawmaking power by Congress. Each level of law must conform to the levels of law above it. Government interpretation is not law, but it is given great deference by courts. Agency officials are not elected, but the Administrative Procedure Act serves to protect the public from agency action that is arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law.